Review published by TRAIN-HEART fellow Joana Silva on non-coding RNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy

Cardiovascular diseases are a major health problem, and long-term survival for people diagnosed with heart failure is, still, unrealistic. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy largely contributes to morbidity and mortality, as effective therapeutic approaches are lacking. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) arise as active regulators of the signaling pathways and mechanisms that govern this pathology, and their therapeutic potential has received great attention in the last decades. Preclinical studies in large animal models have been successful in ameliorating cardiac hypertrophy, and an antisense drug for the treatment of heart failure has, already, entered clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac hypertrophy, the involvement of ncRNAs, and the current therapeutic landscape of oligonucleotides targeting these regulators. Strategies to improve the delivery of such therapeutics and overcome the actual challenges are, also, defined and discussed. With the fast advance in the improvement of oligonucleotide drug delivery, the inclusion of ncRNAs-targeting therapies for cardiac hypertrophy seems, increasingly, a closer reality.


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